This documentary broadcast on Norwegian television examines how companies consciously design articles that stop working after a while so that people have to buy new things. The light bulb is a good example of this. After the incandescent lamp manufacturers, including the Dutch Phillips, had successfully formed a cartel in the early years of the last century, the quality of incandescent lamps deteriorated sharply. From 2500 burning hours in 1920 this decreased to 1000 burning hours in 1940. This mechanism of planned failure can be found today in all kinds of consumer products such as iPods, printers, etc. In this time this seems a bizarre practice and something perhaps in the same way as cartels should be dealt with thoroughly. Below the interesting documentary, (English subtitles can be turned on if necessary):
It was also mentioned in the above documentary, but the answer to this kind of built-in waste is the Cradle to Cradle principle where you try to design products that can be fully reused. Let us educate our future generations especially in this last principle so that in principle we no longer have any waste products, but all technical waste can serve as new raw material for other products. Learning to think cyclically just like nature. Below are two older documentaries from VPRO about Cradle to Cradle. They can be viewed on the site itself.